In the midst of the global climate change phenomenon, mainly caused by fossil fuel burning to provide energy for our daily life and discharge of CO2 into the atmosphere, biogas is one of the important renewable energy sources that can be upgraded and applied as a fuel source for energy in daily life. The advantages of the production of hybrid materials, metal-organic framework (MOF) adsorbents, expected for the biogas upgrading, rely on the bulk separation of CO2 under near-ambient conditions.
Biogas is formed naturally when palm oil liquid waste (POME) is decomposed under anaerobic conditions. Without control, biogas is a major contributor to global climate change. Biogas power plants take advantage of the natural decomposition process to generate electricity. Biomass that is high in moisture content, such as animal manure and food-processing wastes, is suitable for producing biogas using a biological treatment process called anaerobic digestion. Biomass decomposition is made by methanogenic bacteria. Gas composition is methane 50%-65%, 25%-45% CO2, and some admixtures. It is estimated that India can produce power of about 17,000 MW using biogas. This is about 10% of the total electricity installed capacity in India. This high methane content makes biogas an excellent source of renewable energy to replace natural gas and other fossil fuels. Biogas is typically used in factory boilers and in engine generator sets to produce electricity and heat. If internal combustion engines are fuelled with biogas to produce electricity, the facility can use the electricity or export it to the power grid.
Market of biogas plants worldwide in 2006 – 2030
Biogas plants are a reliable source of decentralized Renewable Energy for heating, cooking as well as generating electricity/power generation and as thermal energy application alternatives in our country.
In India there are various resources to generate the electricity using wastage i.e. Agriculture, Landfills gas, Sewage & Water Treatment, Coal gas etc…
Agriculture in many countries, especially in India, is the biggest GDP contributor, hence to the bio-waste of the country. The agro-residues from a typical energy crop including Maize, Grass, Wheat, Rice and alternatively from other organic waste materials such as Slurry, Poultry waste Manure, Vegetable waste can be used for biogas production.
Here our leading gas engines and biogas power solutions can provide best savings by converting all the bio-waste to energy and fertilizer.
Our cogeneration systems running on biogas in farms and dairies produce power and heat both economically and environmentally friendly.
Sewage & Water Treatment
Sewage and water treatment plants remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants from wastewater. Sewage gas power is the energy generated from the Effluent. Sewage gas is available as a “free” fuel on site.
The electric power can either be used to supply the sewage plant itself, or it can be fed into the electricity grid. The thermal energy can be utilized for heating up the sewage sludge in the digester or for heating the whole facility.
A mission critical STP plant requires a reliable and continuous power supply to maintain 24/7 operations. Our complete power range along with industry-leading reliability and availability provides backup and standby power 24/7 for utilization of waste energy in sewage plants in a most economical way.
Landfill gas is generated as a result of anaerobic digestion of garbage in the dump site. It virtually constitutes a free source of energy that can be utilized to generate electricity.
Although being an attractive financial aspect, planned gas recycling offers other important benefits like-
The odour nuisance from landfill sites is reduced. Fire & explosion hazards can be prevented.
Gas migration is avoided
Landfill sites can be re-cultivated more quickly.
Waste methane from working mines, coal seam methane extracted from unmined virgin coal and so called “syngas” produced by the gasification of biomass and waste can be used to generate Power using advanced CHP modules. Methane has 21 times the global warming potential of CO2 when released into the atmosphere.
Gas engines help dispose of coal mine gas while harnessing it as an energy source. The potential danger due to the diffuse emission of mine gas and its main constituent methane (25 to 60 percent) is reduced by efficiently using it for power generation. This process avoids the liberation of methane that would otherwise be vented or flared.
Bio-CNG environment-friendly and low emission
Bio-CNG has commercial, industrial and automotive values and can be used in restaurants, cement factories, public transport and CNG-fitted vehicles.
Bio-CNG contains about 92-98 % of methane and only 2-8 % carbon dioxide. The calorific value of Bio-CNG is about 52,000 kilojoules (kJ) per kg, which is 167 % higher than that of biogas. The high methane content and calorific value combined with the low quantity of moisture, hydrogen sulphide and impurities makes Bio-CNG an ideal fuel for automobiles and power generation. The low emission levels of Bio-CNG also make it a more environment-friendly fuel than biogas.
Compressed biogas is exactly similar to the commercially available natural gas in its composition and energy potential. Given the abundance of biomass in the country, compressed biogas has the potential to replace CNG in automotive, industrial and commercial uses in the coming years. The potential for compressed biogas production from various sources in India is estimated at about 62 million tonnes per annum and also help bring down dependency on crude oil imports. Bio-CNG also holds great promise for efficient municipal solid waste management and in tackling the problem of polluted urban air due to farm stubble-burning and carbon emissions. The Bio-CNG process also
produces enriched organic manure which can be used as fertiliser. As Bio-CNG has a high calorific value it also finds its use in blast furnaces.
As production of Bio-CNG from biogas is a new technology there may be some challenges in adopting this technology:
● The capital cost for installing a Bio-CNG is expensive. E.g. to produce 400 kg/day of Bio-CNG requires a capital investment of Rs. 1.65 crores while 5000 kg/day requires Rs.16 crores.
● Preliminary processes like collection, transportation, and segregation may also limit the adaptation.
● It can be installed only where waste generation is abundant. It is challenging to assure waste sources for the production of Bio-CNG and it will not be consistent.
● The production process requires skilled technicians.
● There are no specific standards existing in India for installation, operation, and maintenance of these plants.
Snapshot of Bio-CNG in India
In India, Bio-CNG is estimated to replace two-thirds of India’s Natural gas imports, which is currently at 429 billion cubic feet. In July 2016, the Waste to Energy Division of MNRE launched a programme on energy from urban, industrial and agricultural wastes/residues which aims to promote setting up of projects for recovery of energy in the form of biogas/Bio-CNG/enriched biogas from urban, industrial, and agricultural wastes. Central Financial Assistance (CFA) of INR 4 crore per 4800 kg of Bio-CNG/day generated from 12,000 cubic metre Biogas /day has been announced, with a limitation of Maximum CFA as INR 10 crore/project). Presently, there are seventeen Bio-CNG plants operational in India, with a combined capacity of 46,178 kg per day (Figure 2). These plants are spread over nine states, of which Maharashtra leads in terms of the largest capacity as well as the highest number of plants. In addition, the National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India is planning to develop a Bio-CNG facility in a few states including New Delhi and Chennai.